14th Congress of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Webcasted Presentation

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Treatment options related to clinical type
Dr. Andrea Rossetti
Dr. Andrea Rossetti
Lausanne, Switzerland  
Disclosure: Research support by Pfizer, UCB, Janssen-Cilag, Eisai.
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Topic: Other
28 slide(s) – 00:20:13– English –2010-09-28
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To learn how to manage nonconvulsive status epilepticus according to the clinical presentation.
To avoid overtreatment.
To learn risks ov overtreatment.
To learn the most important prgnostic issues.
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Treatment of status epilepticus (SE) consists in the sequential administration of three lines of drugs. The first is represented by benzodiazepines, and enjoys quite robust scientific evidence. The second one includes (phos-) phenytoin, valproate, phenobarbital, and increasingly levetiracetam, but its rationale is relatively scarce. The third line is pharmacological coma induction with barbiturates, propofol, or midazolam, which lacks the support of prospective, controlled studies and is reserved for refractory SE. Several other drugs are used after failure of this scheme, including newer antiepileptic compounds, other medications, and non-pharmacological approaches; no comparative assessment of their respective role has been conducted.
It is important to tailor this relatively simple protocol to each particular situation; the supposed advantages of coma induction should be balanced with the morbidity related to prolonged mechanical ventilation. A wide consensus exists to treat generalized-convulsive SE and SE in coma soon and aggressively, to prevent a dismal outcome. On the other side, it is unclear if complex-partial SE induces permanent neuronal damage, and absence SE has an excellent prognosis: it appears therefore advisable not to proceed automatically to coma induction in these cases. SE related to post-anoxic coma has generally a poor prognosis, but some selected cases seem to be amenable to a better outcome if treated.
SE prognosis depends on etiology, the biological background including age and comorbidities, and, possibly, treatment; each of these points deserves to be specifically addressed. A simple prognostic score has been recently validated and, helping to orient early treatment strategies and improve SE management.
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