Vitamin D and breast density in pre- and postmenopausal women
Dr. Sabine Fillenberg
6 slide(s) – English – 2012-03-28
It is known that Vitamin D receptors are present in breast tissue and 25-hydroxyvitamin D is metabolized to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Through antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects vitamin D is thought to possibly lower breast density and to prevent breast cancer.
We correlated serum vitamin D levels, hormone intake, breast density and mammographic results.
Patients with an indication for a mammography were recruited to have serum levels taken to measure vitamin D, calcium, phosphate and creatinin levels. Participants answered a questionnaire-based interview. From the mammography information on breast density (ACR-) and suspect lesions (BIRADS-classification) was derived.
Vitamin D level was lower in patients with a BIRADS 4-6 result (n=99; 16ng/ml) than in patients with a BIRADS 0-3 result (n=892; 18ng/ml).
Concerning premenopausal women (n=517) we found the lowest serum vitamin D level in patients with ACR 4 (15ng/ml), higher mean levels in patients with ACR 1-3 (17ng/ml). Postmenopausal women (n=588) with ACR 2/3 had higher serum vitamin D levels (18ng/ml) than those with ACR 1/4 (16ng/ml).
Premenoausal women who have ever taken hormones (n=433) had a mean ACR of 2.75, those who have not (n=66) had a mean ACR of 2.70. Participants with a (pre-)malignant histology (n=58) had an average serum vitamin D level of 16ng/ml, the average vitamin D level of all the participants was 17ng/ml.
Increasing vitamin D levels may correlate with lower breast density, especially in premenopausal women. No strong evidence seems to be provided that higher vitamin D levels correlate with lower breast cancer risk.
Key words: Vitamin D, breast cancer risk, mammography, breast density